Like nonviolence with civil disobedience struggle in Southern Africa — over the world’s gold, diamonds, & uranium — current nonviolence with civil disobedience struggle concerns oil & water, globally & locally — complicated by polarized poverty, religious, & ecological dogmas. Ending NATO-Israel apartheid may hinge on a global boycott, divest, & sanctions campaign; See, e.g., http://www.passia.org/links-Wall.htm and http://www.bdsmovement.net/.
1 Overview of
boycott aim & purpose against apartheid;
2 Apartheid & nonviolence from the 1900s;
3 Overcoming NATO-Israel apartheid violence; and
4 Historical chronology of shared apartheid backgrounds up to 2000.
1 Overview of boycott aim & purpose against apartheid:
Aim & Method: Corporate-”Consumer” Boycott, Divestment, & Sanctions
Purpose: Engage Inter-positioning U.N. Blue Helmets & Peace Brigades
Discourage–Stop–Rollback Internationally-Illegal Israeli Settlements
One Person–One Vote Plebiscite (w/in Federated State/Cantonal Plan)
And — Quoting from 2002 Statement of Prominent South African Jews
To promote good faith negotiations with Arab & Palestinian leaders;
To promote peacekeeping (via international law & U.N. Security Council; and
To promote reconciliatory Israeli & Palestinian reconciliation in one nation-state.
2 Apartheid & nonviolence from the 1900s:
Apartheid parallels and its sequential architecture can be referenced, (as shown below), through — analogous “academic” roots in Hendrik Stoker (RSA) & Nahum Goldmann (Israel); “political” roots, Hendrik Vorwoerd (RSA) & Abba Eban (Israel); and “military” roots, Jan Smuts (RSA) & Ben Gurion (Israel). University student-led divestment precedents especially concern consumer boycott, divestment, & sanctions coalition-building, to eventually revitalize such focal corporate-consumer & banking targets as:
— Bronfman affiliates, like Universal, Vivendi, Brascan, Koor, & Claridge Groups, &
— Digital conglomerates like GE, Raytheon, CiscoSys, H-P, MS, T-I, & AoL-TW.
3 Overcoming NATO-Israel apartheid violence:
By 2001, despite chauvinist mas media coverage, the retired Israeli head of ShinBet (Israel’s FBI) formally opposed Israeli apartheid, as “incompatible with the Jewish spirit” and in Palestine, Barghouti also critiqued NATO-Israeli apartheid as applied through an originally Southern African model across Gaza & the West Bank, often enforced by torture. As the South African Kliptown Freedom Charter argued, “Only a democratic state, based on the will of all the people, can secure to all their birthright without distinction of colour, race, sex or belief…. Pass Laws, permits and all other laws restricting these freedom [must] be abolished.” In Palestine, scientific writers like Mazin Qumsiyeh, for instance, have focused on relevant nonviolence training for civil disobedience within NATO-Israeli apartheid.
See, e.g., http://www.palestinenature.org/; http://qumsiyeh.org/activistmanual/; Albert Luthuli, “Boycott Us,” Spectator (12 February 1960), 208; Amy Ayalon, “Apartheid in Palestine” Arab Star (Cairo, 2001), http://www.arab-star.com/2001_7.html; Mustafa Barghouthi, “St. George’s Cathedral, Jerusalem – Centenary,” Al-Ahram (1998); (14-20 May 1998 ); http://220.127.116.11/www1/ofm/curr/TSgl02ns.html. For RSA Freedom Charter, please see, e.g., http://www.anc.org.za/show.php?id=72.
Southern Africa leaders formally-equated Southern African apartheid resistance against NATO-Israel apartheid resistance, concerning potential global holocaust, in an official 2002 parliamentary document. Ronnie Kasrils, who led ANC “intelligence” against Southern African apartheid, for instance, & Max Ozinky (ANC MP, Capetown, RSA) articulated how escalating, hegemonic NATO-Israel apartheid oil wars threaten global security. During South African apartheid, e.g., the Israeli Koor-Iskoor Industries, and subsidiaries Soltam & Tadiran, jointly-undergirded South Africa’s arms & nuclearized weapons systems. Kasrils & Ozinky decried ruthless NATO-Israel security methods deploying tanks, bulldozers, machine guns, & helicopter gunships, so as to demolish homes & olive groves for settler land, enforced by impossibly-stringent curfews & roadblocks. Israeli journalists likewise conveyed how Israel tops the world’s industrialized nation states ranks in child domestic violence. Boycott, divest, & sanctions initiatives started from Bethlehem, (Palestine via Israel), & analogous U.S. university campuses, such as the Universities of Illinois, Michigan, & California.
See, e.g., Jon Jeter, “South African Jews Polarized Over Israel; Anti-Racism Leaders Equate Country’s Treatment of Palestinians to Apartheid,” Washington Post (19 December 2001), A35; Etgar Lefkovits, “Israel First in Violence by 12-Year-Olds,” Jerusalem Post (Aharonot Daily, 31 Dec. 2001); and Dun & Bradstreet “Israel,” Online, http://duns100.globes.co.il/en/, which, e.g., offers information which took a multilateral U.N. Centres Against Apartheid, years, if not decades, to access and analyze usefully; (via U.N. Anti-Apartheid Centres in Vienna and Manhattan, for enabling Divestment and disabling Apartheid).
4 Historical chronology of shared apartheid backgrounds up to 2000:
Israeli & South African Apartheid styles share common roots in historical English and German Colonial experience. Both states gained independence in 1948 from English rule, although the Dutch Afrikaners called the accompanying colonial racism “apartheid.” In such contexts, apartheid evolves as a nationalist commitment to societal macro-segregation and individual micro-segregation, on the basis of race (South Africa) or religion (Israel), producing state priorities alleged to be separate yet equal; (called ‘Jim Crow’ in the U.S.A.). Israeli and South African Apartheid military collusion coalesced in Koor–Iskoor, (the South African Iron & Steel Corporation, with Bronfman corporate backing). Privately, nevertheless, through charity and corporate ties, as noted by Mazrui: “South Africa’s Jews provide the second largest private financial contribution to Israel — second only to that provided by American Jews.” Writing in German, Nahum Goldmann likewise described such apartheid policies as the core of what he called the “spirit” of militarism, dehumanizing people through selective societal regimentation (uniformierung), and variable individual participation (subordination), despite the force (genius) of human historical experience to the contrary; (vs. what’s needed for evolutionary survival). As noted from Zimbabwe exile, by Chimbamba, (PLO), Malan — the first head of state to endorse Apartheid and to recognize Israel — also shared right-wing roots with the Stern Gang, the Irgun Zvai Leumi, and the Stormjaers of the Ossewabrandwag, (i.e., Broederbond right-wing core). Core early 1900s civil disobedience campaigns surfaced simultaneously with expressions like “Amandla” & “Satyagraha” (from Southern Africa), & “Intifada” (from the Arab Women’s Organization in Jaffa, in 1910).
In turn, Ben-Gurion, (like Jan Smuts in South Africa), with Ben-Zvi, Jabotinsky, & Trumpeldor had assembled the Israeli military from paramilitary and anti-Ameri-Indian militia roots in Canada, England, & Egypt. By 1917 Smuts had assumed supreme leadership of the English War Cabinet Priorities Committee, in effect planning even the British Royal Air Force, (or R.A.F.), in return for which, Smuts was offered choice commands in Ireland or Palestine. He instead co-authorized control functions in the League of Nations, and, in turn, enabled Allenby’s Palestine military strategy for taking the Middle-East & East Africa from the Ottoman Empire. South Africa under Smuts incorporated apartheid, through divisive Native Administrative Laws; Nahum Goldmann demarcated like ideological underpinnings of the Zionist state, as founding editor of core Zionist periodicals, and launched the benchmark tomes of the Encyclopedia Judaica; leading the Israeli League of Nations liaisons (1934) — while David Ben-Gurion chaired the Histadrut Jewish Agency — and then organized the World Jewish Congress, via Goldmann’s Washington, D.C., Jewish Agency for Palestine lobby offices. Goldmann’s hegemonic war lobby in Washington, D.C., became AIPAC (or the American Israeli Public Affairs Committee), coordinated internationally through the Conference of Presidents of Major Jewish Organizations– CPMAJO, worldwide). The Israeli Haganah coalesced when repressing the first Intifada in the late 1930s. By 1948 India, Israel, and South Africa declared independence from the British Raj. By the 1950s, Goldman brokered reparations from Austria, (using German WWI reparations examples.)
South Africa’s 1950s “laws” legalized apartheid as did Israeli citizenship laws ratified by Zionist Organization-Jewish Agency status laws (Israel) and the much-to-be–hated pass–identification card laws (Israel & South Africa). Resulting defiance campaigns challenged what Israel termed administrative detention and South Africa called acts or laws over sabotage, official secrets, riotous assembly, and suppression of communism. South African Jews provided more human resources than did U.S. Jews to the new Israeli state, especially in military medicine, and the Israeli air force, (via Canada & South Africa). A NonAligned Movement simultaneously-opposed apartheid, as it initially-convened in Bandung, Indonesia; As South Africans announced their Kliptown Freedom Charter in 1955, over Israeli & South Africa “emergency” laws.
By the early 1960s South Africa applied “no trial” laws disguised as 2-to-3 month (90-day), and then, 6-month (180-day) acts, to obscure prison torture without trial — countered in turn by more international & U.N. boycott sanctions. Israel’s 1967 war “synced” apartheid Israeli & South Africa laws: ranging from holy site & agricultural settlement (restricted land & water use) laws, to control & appropriation laws for land and banks, followed by guns, taxes, drugs, water, customs, censorship, electricity, employment, currency, education, insurance, and tourism & antiquities policies, plus laws for producer cooperatives as well as postal & transportation services. Overall, South Africa favored “terrorism” terminology, while authorizing massive book burnings & citizen banning.
From 1968 to 1971, Israeli military orders encompassed rescinding & restricting licenses for attorneys, businesses, professionals, public notaries, beaches & tenants — then, judiciary, commerce, & “public” land — after which, electrical, auditing, surveys, elections, arbitration, & civil services administration marginalized Palestinians. Comparative NATO-Israeli policy devolved into massive detention camps in the Sinai & South Africa — endorsed by control laws engaging media censorship and aversive corporate evasion of sanctions, as both states dismissed UN Resolution 2764 (against torture). From 1972 to 1981, Israeli & South African military orders and legislative acts fixed prices, communication (e.g., patent) controls, court system maleability, and concurrent invasions into Lebanon and throughout Southern Africa — to counteract implosive economically-counterproductive apartheid catastrophes. Palestinians countered legally with Al-Haq (in 1979), to resist arbitrary detention masking torture, while conscientious South Africans built the first African Studies Center in Maputo, Mozambique — designed to overthrow apartheid financially. Subsequent book bombs mailed by national security agencies killed two core Maputo academics, Ruth First (pioneer African naturalist), and Eduardo Mondlane (the first president of Mozambique).
By the 1980s civilian Israeli injunctions authorized Israeli military rule, while South Africans began to overwhelm state apartheid through anti-apartheid coalition struggles. U.S. leadership at the time counter-posed a covert Iran-Contra policy enabling Israeli training, and so-called “Constructive Engagement” to authorize NATO bombing across Tunisia & Southern Africa; In 1985, Rabin launched a much-vaunted “Iron Fist” against Lebanon, as Arafat renounced terrorism in Cairo. However, by 1986, despite bombing of Libya, South Africans scrapped their pass laws, while Israelis launched more “emergency” laws, closing schools & universities and sending tanks & gunships against universities and unarmed civilians.
In 1988 Al-Haq convened its first International Conference on (Israeli) Apartheid Law in West Jerusalem, and organized a “Mandela Institute” across Israeli prisons — often from Bethlehem. South Africans ended a separate amenities act in 1989, as global boycott sanctions were lifted, (after many decades), and opted for a one person = one vote policy to replace apartheid; While U.S.-led war sanctions pitched Israelis against Iraqis & Palestinians. By 1995 Israeli closure or bantustanization of Jerusalem localized apartheid in Palestine, as Israelis forced Palestinians to wear–carry computerized Pass–ID–Cards. By 1997- PLO/PNA detention edicts also reflected consolidated Israeli administration detention laws; By 1999, logistical torture in detention ferociously accelerated, (under Israeli Military Order 1466), with Israeli Administration Detention without trial lasting fifteen (15) years (or longer); No writ of habeas corpus.
See, e.g., Ali Mazrui, Zionism and Apartheid: Strange Bedfellows or Natural Allies? Panel
Presentation for “Dimensions of African-Arab Relations,
(American Professors for Peace in the Middle East, Annual Meeting of
the Midwest Political Science Association, Pick-Congress Hotel
Chicago, IL, 1977), 2, 16, & 25; Nahum Goldmann,
Der Geist des Militarismus in
Deutsche Krieg, 52d Vol. (Berlin: Deutsche, 1915), 7-42; Asaf
Hussein, The United States and
Israel, Politics of a Special Relationship (Islamabad:
Quaid-I-Azam University, 1991), 73-74; Abraham Chibamba,
Right is Might (Harare,
Zimbabwe: PLO, 1990), 44, 48, & 137;
Apartheid is Built on Torture (Helsinki: Kiriopaino Kursiivi Oy,
1972); Raja Shehadeh & Jonathan Kuttab,
Civilian Administration in the
Occupied West Bank: Analysis of Israeli Military Government Order
No. 947 (Jerusalem/Geneva: Al-Haq/International Commission of
Jurists/ICJ, 1982), 7 & 29-63; Thomas Lamont, “Smuts, South
Africa, & the World,”
Saturday Review of Literature (5 Dec 1936), 5; Hendrik Vorwoerd,
Bantu Education: Policy for the Immediate Future (Pretoria:
Information Service of the Department of Native Affairs, 1954);
and the leading Ossewabrandwag scholar, Hendrik
Stoker: Das Gewissen,
Erscheinungsformen und Theorien (Bonn: F. Cohen,1925), 280 pp; Hendrik Stoker,
Die Aard en Rol van die Reg
[Law]; ‘n Wysgerige Besinning
(Johannesburg: Randse Afrikaanse Universiteit, 1970); Hendrik
Stoker, Beginsels en Metodes
in die Wetenskap (Potchefstroom, Pro Rege-Pers, 1961); & Hendrik Stoker, Die Stryd om die Ordes (Pretoria : Caxton, 1941). Stoker
did his PhD dissertation under Max Sheler, latter being core founder
of both European Phenomenology & the Frankfurter Schule.
Stoker did his PhD dissertation under Max Sheler, latter being core founder of both European Phenomenology & the Frankfurter Schule.